Old Testament Passover-History and Facts
Passover was established in the Old Testament in memory of the epic salvation of the Jewish people from their slavery in Egypt (Ex. 12: 23-27). It is the oldest celebration of Israel. The word "Passover" honors the angel who passed all the Jewish homes whose doors were marked with the blood of the sacrificial lamb (Ex. 12: 7). This was the biggest Jewish holiday, celebrated from 15 to 21 days of the month of Nisan (according to the lunar calendar), it is a movable celebration that coincides with the months of March and April.
In the New Testament era
Passover is connected with the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. As the evangelists state about Passover, the Christian feast was celebrated early on the first day of the week after the first day of the Jewish Passover. The week before Easter, was called "crossed Passover", and the week after it was called "Resurrection Passover."
During the celebration of the Resurrection of Christ
From the establishment of the Passover between churches controversy arose on the day of his celebration. The majority of Western churches (Roman, Carthaginian, etc.) Insisted that this be done on a Sunday, i. E. The festival to be flexible. This idea especially zealously defended the thirteenth in a row bishop of Rome - Victor (+199 years). Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Caesarea and other Eastern churches celebrate Easter on the first Sunday after the Jewish Passover, referring to that of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist and seventh Apostles: "Bishop, or Presbyter, who celebrates the holy day of Passover before the vernal equinox with the Jews to overthrow ... ". Asia Minor churches in center city of Ephesus on the other hand insisted that the celebration of Christ's resurrection in the evening of 14 days of the month of Nisan with Jews. The controversy erupted in t. Pomegranate. "Passover disputes", which were suspended after the decision of the First Ecumenical Council (325) for the simultaneous celebration of the Passover of all the churches. Since Easter is marked in the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox.
By calculating the annual day of Passover was charged Alexandrian church because of its old school was famous educated astronomers. Each year, the Alexandria Patriarch sent to the heads of other churches so. Called. "Passover letters" that notify them of the date of Easter and related holidays. More kano t. Pomegranate. "Passover table" was included at the end of the liturgical constitution and other liturgical books. Consisting of nine columns. They had marked the year of creation of the world, the year of the Nativity, the Indica, the solar cycle, the lunar cycle, dates of which can happen Passover, and others.
According to the first rule of St. Dionysius of Alexandria (+ 264 years) and 89 rules of the Sixth Ecumenical Council (680) worship of the Passover should begin around the middle hours of the night. Until then continued and predpashalniyat post. According to other liturgical statutes as that of Mount Athos monastery "St. Filotei" of 1813 heralding Christ's resurrection was the ninth hour of the night, i. E. About three hours after midnight. In many statutes was not a specific time, and was noted only that the Passover liturgy began at "dawn". With very few exceptions, mainly in Mount Athos monasteries and some villages in Greece, today all churches celebrate Easter in the sixth hour of the night, i. E. At midnight.
Christ's resurrection or Easter is the most ancient Christian holiday. For it speaks St. Paul in his first epistle to the Corinthians (5: 7-8). Very early in his celebration was associated with preparatory office, whose duration is difficult to establish, as was different in different churches.
In the first Christian centuries the night of Passover were performed baptisms of catechumens and the Eucharist was associated with agape or night of love. In "Testament of our Lord Jesus Christ" (4 in.) Described similar SERIES. For this Passover night of love were prepared special bread reserved this day in different churches under a different name. After 313, the number of those willing to accept baptism become so large that it was impossible to be baptized only on the night of the Resurrection and the general baptisms started carrying out against other major holidays.
As a "feast of feasts" Passover was not included twelve great Gospodski Virgin Mary and holidays. Gradually formed around her whole festive cycle that began forty days ago and ended almost sixty days following it.
During the Byzantine era the evening of Holy Saturday would start paschal vigil, which was one of the most solemn consistent further development of the Eastern Church, while the most ancient form of vigil. Included Vespers, during which the catechumens were baptized, Liturgy of St. Basil the Great, where they took Communion for the first time, long reading from the book of Acts of St. Apostles, Paschal Midnight Office, Matins and Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. Of solemn Passover liturgy was considered the Liturgy of St. Basil the Great. To facilitate baptism and communion of catechumens, Vespers related to liturgy St.Vasilius the Great, was transferred to the morning of Holy Saturday. Gradually dropped baptism of catechumens, and with them and reading from the book of Acts of St. Apostles. On the night of Passover was carried Paschal Midnight Office, Matins and Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom.
Paschal Midnight Office is different from normal in that after Ps. 50 ("Have mercy on me, O God ...") rather than threefold be sung canon canon of Matins of Holy Saturday (performed on Good Friday evening) "Under the waves ...". Chetiripesnetsat this canon was written by St. Cosmas Mayumski (+776 years) irmosite - from nun Cassia (a) (8 in.) And troparia - from Otrandskiya Bishop Mark. According to other researchers author is St. John Damascene (+750 years).
SERIES associated with the ignition of the spark plugs, is taken from an ancient like SERIES performed in Jerusalem at the descent of the Holy Fire in the "St.. Resurrection". Almost all liturgical statutes of the time after 11 in. Off the reading of the Gospel at the end of the Midnight Office. Passover liturgy previously contained only "Praise Consubstantial ..." and singing "Christ is Risen ...". The inclusion of the Gospel before the morning service is connected with the transfer of Vespers and Liturgy of St. Basil the Great in the morning, as the gospel of the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is just John 1: 1-17. Initially was read the second morning gospel (John 20: 19-25), and later - the first resurrected gospel "And the eleven disciples went to Galilee ..." (Matt. 28: 16-20), brought the Gospel of Vespers Passover. In addition to various evangelical readings in various statutes were different in volume and evangelical texts. This was a consequence of neuednakvenost sravniteltno late inclusion of Gospel readings at the end of the Midnight Office. Repeated singing unto "Christ is risen ..." with the relevant verses is taken from the consecutive azmatichnite where likewise sang hearing protection.
Perhaps the author of the Paschal canon "Under the waves ..." is St. John of Damascus, which in its composition used some of the words of St. Gregory the Theologian (+389 years). Irmosite the canon of ancient rank are carried in procession in Jerusalem, which began at the "St.. Resurrection" and passed through the holy places associated with the New Testament events. After each song canon was less pronounced litany whose cry is thanksgiving, which closes one of the eight prayers antifol azmatichnata morning service.
According to tradition from the beginning of the Byzantine era in the night of the Resurrection everyone present had a right to Holy Communion without particular have prepared for it.